Battery BMS 101 - A Beginner's Guide to Understanding Battery Management System (BMS)

Battery BMS 101

Battery BMS 101 is to provide an overview for everyone who is considering going diy battery project; it covers everything that you need to know when investing in Battery Management System (BMS).

What is a Battery Management System (BMS)?

The battery management system (BMS) is commonly referred to as a battery nanny or a battery housekeeper, which is mainly for the intelligent management and maintenance of each battery (cell), preventing the battery from overcharging, over-discharging and overcurrent, and prolonging the use of the battery Life, monitor battery status (voltage, current, temperature, etc.), functions include thermal management, balance control, fault diagnosis, charge management, participation in energy recovery, etc. Basically, electronic parameters are used to identify changes in physical and chemical reactions. Therefore, it is very important to equip the battery pack with a BMS protection system.

Basic Functions Of BMS

  • Monitoring: real-time collection of total voltage, cell voltage, charge and discharge current, and temperature of the battery pack; 
  • Protection: with overcharge, overdischarge, overcurrent, overtemperature, short circuit and other protections; 
  • Battery balance: Active or passive balance technology is a state where each battery in the battery pack reaches a balanced state.F

BMS extended functions

  • A variety of communication methods (such as CANBUS/RS485/RS232, etc.) to achieve telemetry, remote signaling, remote control and other functions; 
  • The battery status and data can be read through LED, LCD, and upper computer; 
  • High and low side insulation detection; 
  • Timing storage of data; 
  • SOC and SOH calculation; 
  • Current limiting function; 
  • Multiple sleep and wake-up functions; 
  • Multiple external drive functions.

Why a Lithium-Ion Battery Management System necessary?

Although lithium-ion batteries have more advantages than other types of batteries, they are also limited by factors such as cell materials and current manufacturing processes, resulting in differences in internal resistance, capacity, and voltage between single-cell lithium batteries. In practical applications, the individual cells in the battery pack are prone to uneven heat dissipation or excessive charging and discharging. Over time, these batteries in poor working conditions are likely to be damaged in advance, and the overall life of the battery pack is greatly shortened. Not only that, there is a danger of explosion when the battery is in a severely overcharged state, which causes damage to the battery pack and also threatens the safety of users. 

Therefore, the battery pack must be equipped with a set of targeted battery management system (BMS), so as to effectively monitor, protect, energy balance and fault alarm of the battery pack, thereby improving the working efficiency of the entire power battery pack And service life.

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